This study investigates the impact of poverty, social capital and land tenure on the adoption of soil fertility management (SFM) and conservation technologies in Uganda. Considering four land management technologies (fallowing, terracing and inorganic and organic fertilizers), the study estimates a multinomial logit model to link farmers’ characteristics to the choice of technologies. The findings show that investments in land management are driven by factors such as land tenure security, level of poverty and participation in community organizations (social capital), and, most importantly, that household level poverty reduces the probability of adoption of most of the technologies, while social capital and land tenure security increase it. The findings suggest that more efficient government efforts to reduce poverty would enhance the adoption of SFM technologies. Other policies that would enhance the adoption of sustainable land management practices are infrastructure development, tenure security through a more efficient system of land registration, and investment in and use of social capital institutions.