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This article analyzes the effect of the aging and the retirements in the Brazilian rural scene, which is a question of most importance for the current days, since the relative participation of the aging group in the total set of the Brazilian population is increasing. Thus, there exists a concern with the future of the Social Security sot that it must pass through reforms. Hence, the objective of this paper is to raise elements for the discussion on the importance of the social security in the agricultural sector, since it passes through significant demographic changes. With a sufficiently fragmented history, since the years of the Empire, the Social Security has been extending several segments of society, being one of the most important forms of inclusion of the agricultural workers. Since 1991, agricultural workers have been covered by the General Regimen of the Social Security, which constitutes a great landmark in the history of the institution. With the incorporation of women in this benefit, new rights have been set, since aged women are majority in the field. The number of retirees due to aging the rural areas. This is an evidence of the aging process of the rural population and a better income redistribution among the elderly households). The field, that in the past depended basically on the income of the agricultural production, now counts on this extra alternative of income, reason for why the phenomenon of aging of the Brazilian population, specifically in the agricultural environment, brings the necessity of adjusting policies to the sector, so that the concession of these social security will not be threatened in the future.