The North Dakota University System consists of the North Dakota University System Office and 11 college campuses located throughout the state. In addition to the 11 main campuses, numerous other university facilities, centers, and offices are located throughout the state. Institutions of higher education have an economic effect in their respective areas and across the state as those institutions acquire inputs, purchase services, and provide for payroll and employment at both the local and state level. North Dakota University System expenditures include general fund sources (e.g., state appropriated monies) and non-general fund sources (i.e., grants, contracts, donations). North Dakota University System in-state expenditures for fiscal year (FY) 2011 comprise the direct economic impact or ‘first round effects.’ The North Dakota Input-Output Model was used to estimate the secondary economic effects as those direct effects (i.e., expenditures) are circulated and re-spent in the economy. The model estimates the changes in gross business volume (gross receipts) for all sectors of an economy and is used to provide key economic indicators such as retail trade activity, economy-wide personal income, gross business volume, secondary employment, and state-level tax receipts. Key measures of the economic contribution of the North Dakota University System in FY2011 include: • Direct economic impacts (expenditures) of $1.2 billion, of which $817 million were expenditures from non-general fund sources • Direct expenditures from general and non-general funds created a gross business volume of $3.5 billion, which included $832 million in retail trade activity and $1.4 billion in economy-wide personal income • Economic output in the retail trade sector would generate $38.5 million in sales and use tax collections, and economy-wide personal income of $1.4 billion would generate about $20.7 million in individual income tax collections in North Dakota • Direct employment by the North Dakota University System was 11,438 positions (excluding student jobs). • Secondary (indirect and induced) employment resulting from the business activity generated by the North Dakota University System was estimated at 11,474 jobs • Enrollment in the 11 member universities and colleges in the Fall of 2010 (which more closely aligns with FY2011) was equal to 38,899 full-time equivalent students • Student living expenses were estimated at $392 million and were in addition to institution spending • Increased business activity generated by student spending was estimated at $974 million, which included $440 million in retail trade activity and $236 million of economy-wide personal income and would support about 2,000 secondary jobs.