After the political, economic and social transformation in 1989-1990 the farm structure in Hungary became undoubtedly more diverse than earlier and many unfavourable features have appeared such as: fragmented holding and bipolar property structure, low technical, technological, educational and living standards, and high unemployment rate especially in the rural areas. These disadvantageous points currently exist permanently although a modest improvement has started. The new farm structure is radically different from the characteristics of the main competitors, mainly to other EU Member States. The past two decades after the political and economic transition have been enough time to appreciate the characteristics and the main changes in the farm structure so current relevance of the topic is unquestionable. Viability, subsistence and competitiveness are significant concepts which could be measured by the profitability of the agricultural holdings. It is very important to define the main criteria of viability, subsistence and competitiveness but we should not forget the multifunctional role of agriculture as this could solve very important challenges especially in maintaining the rural population, helping their livelihoods, providing moral and mental support, and maintaining the landscape. It should be emphasised that this research is only a first to step in examining the main changes in the Hungarian farm structure and in the future the study will be extended.