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This paper offers an overview of land reform processes in the CEECs and their outcomes and impacts and analyzes current and emerging structures in rural areas. Different types of land consolidation are defined and their potential impacts are assessed. The paper then looks in depth at land consolidation processes, especially in the context of land management, and outlines preconditions and cornerstones for various approaches. Environmental aspects and principles for land funds and land banking are also drawn in. The paper argues the need for an integrated and sustainable rural development which includes a role for land consolidation.